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medical oncology general pathways selectiv etiomain oncogene alphabet infectious notes



Cellular kinetics

Generation times

Cell cycle

Malignant cells have shorter cell cycles

Daughter cells

Non-malignant cells have a larger percentage of cells in Go phase.

Smaller proliferation fraction

Go phase is the resting phase




a larger percentage of cells in Go phase





The ras gene when it is abnormal signal cells abnormally to divide when they should not


  • Angiogenesis
  • Mutations
  • Mutated genes
  • Oncogene
  • Tumor suppressor gene


Ras gene

Can be normal

Can become abnormal


Ras gene is abnormal in 25% of cancer patients



  • Mutated genes

mutated genes


tumor suppressor genes

  • Protein kinases


Protein kinases may be structurally altered

Protein kinases signal the cell nucleus from the cell membrane


in bladder cancer

in breast cancer

in CML







Cellular Oncogene amplification

Activation of oncogene

Tobacco smoke

A virus


Small cell Lung cancer



Small cell Lung cancer

c-erb B-2

Breast cancer




Burkitt’s lymphoma

A B-Cell neoplasm

One of fastest growing neoplasms in humans


THE PREGNANT FEMALE in the Emergency Room


metabolic demand increased oxygen consumption Pregnancy top
decreased functional residual capacity FRC is the resting volume at end expiration. raise in minute volume Placental abruption maintain high suspicion after 24 weeks gestation..................
leucocytosis 4 minutes to loss of fetus from maternal arrest easily desaturates