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medical oncology general pathways selectiv etiomain oncogene alphabet infectious notes

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Cancer

Cellular kinetics

Generation times

Cell cycle

Malignant cells have shorter cell cycles

Daughter cells

Non-malignant cells have a larger percentage of cells in Go phase.

Smaller proliferation fraction

Go phase is the resting phase

 

 

 

a larger percentage of cells in Go phase

 

 

 

 

The ras gene when it is abnormal signal cells abnormally to divide when they should not

 

  • Angiogenesis
  • Mutations
  • Mutated genes
  • Oncogene
  • Tumor suppressor gene

 

Ras gene

Can be normal

Can become abnormal

 

Ras gene is abnormal in 25% of cancer patients

 

 

  • Mutated genes

mutated genes

oncogenes

tumor suppressor genes

  • Protein kinases

 

Protein kinases may be structurally altered

Protein kinases signal the cell nucleus from the cell membrane

 

in bladder cancer

in breast cancer

in CML

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cellular Oncogene amplification

Activation of oncogene

Tobacco smoke

A virus

c-myc

Small cell Lung cancer

n-myc

neuroblastoma

Small cell Lung cancer

c-erb B-2

Breast cancer

 

 

 

Burkitt’s lymphoma

A B-Cell neoplasm

One of fastest growing neoplasms in humans

 

THE PREGNANT FEMALE in the Emergency Room

 

metabolic demand increased oxygen consumption Pregnancy top
decreased functional residual capacity FRC is the resting volume at end expiration. raise in minute volume Placental abruption maintain high suspicion after 24 weeks gestation..................
leucocytosis 4 minutes to loss of fetus from maternal arrest easily desaturates